Types of Crowd Behavior
When we think of a crowd, many of us think of Ilk-segregates. previously defined as a collection of people who happen to be ill the same place at the same time time but who share little else in common. However, the presence of a relatively large number of people in the same location does not necessarily produce collective behavior, Sociologist Herbert Bloomer (I 946) developed a typology in which crowds are divided into four categories: casual, conventional. expressive. and aas ;;srss crowd a relatively large number of people who are in one another's Immediate vIcinity,mass a number of people who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but who are not in one another's immediate vicinity.
Casual and Conventional Crowds Casual are relatively large gatherings of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time; if they interact at all, it is only briefly, People in a shopping mall or a subway car are examples of casual crowds. Other than sharing 3 momentary interest, such as a down's performance or a small child's fall, a casual crowd has nothing in common. The casual crowd plays no active
part in the event-such as the child's fall-which likely would have occurred whether or not the crowd was present; the crowd simply observes. Conventional crowds are made up of people who come together for a scheduled event and thus share a common focus. Examples include religious services, graduation ceremonies, concerts, and college lectures. Each of these events has reestablished schedules and norms. Because these events occur regularly, interaction among participants is much more likely; in turn, the events would not occur without the crowd, which
is essential to the event, Protest Crowds Sociologists Clark McPhail and Ronald T. Wouldn't (1983) added protest crowds to the four types of crowds identified by Bloomer. Protest engage in activities intended to achieve specific political goals. Examples include sit-ins. marches. boycotts, blockades, and strikes. In 1997 an International Day of Protest was staged against Nicks labor practices in countries such as Vietnam (Shaw, 1999). Some protests take the form of civil nonviolent action that seeks to change policy or law and Acting Crowds Expressive crowds provide opportunities for the expression of some strong emotion (such as joy, excitement, or grief). People release their pent-up emotions in conjunction with other persons experiencing similar emotions. Examples in dude worshipers at religious revival services, mourners lining the ets when a celebrity, public official, or religious leader has died; and revelers assembled at Mardi Gras or on New Year's Eve at Times Square in New York. Acting crowds are collectivizes so intensity focused on a specific purpose or object that they may corrupt.