In recent decades, the percentage of children living in two-parent households has dropped, while the percentage living with a single parent has increased In 2005, the latest year for which comprehensive statistics are available, 67 percent of children lived with two parents, while 23 percent lived with only their mother and 5 percent lived with only their father. In computing these statistics, parents include not only biological parents but also stepparents who adopt their children. However, foster parents are considered non relatives. Parenthood. in the United States is idealized, especially for women. According to the sociologist Alice Rossi (1992), maternity is the mark of adulthood for women, whether or not they are employed. By contrast, men secure their status as adults by their employment and other activities outside the family (Hofi'nung, 1995). For families in which a couple truly shares parenting, children have two primary caregivers. Some parents share parenting responsibilities by choice; others share out of necessity because both hold full-time jobs. Some studies have found that men's taking an active part in raising the children is beneficial not only for mothers (who then have a little more time for other activities) but also for the men and the children. The men benefit through increased access to children and greater opportunity to be nurturing parents (Coltrane, 1989).