The Origins of Sociological Thinking
The rough out history. social philosophers and religious authorities have made countless observations about human behavior. but the systematic analysis of society is found in the philosophies of early Greek philosophers such as Plato (c. 427-347 D.C.E.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.c.E.). For example. Aristotle was concerned with developing a system of knowledge. and he engaged in theorizing and the empirical analysis of data collected from people In Greek cities regarding their views about social life when ruled by kings or aristocracies or when living in democracies (Collins, 1994). However. early thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle provided thoughts on what they believed society ought to be like, rather than describing how society actually was. Social thought began to change rapidly in the seventeenth century with the scientific revolution. Like their predecessors in the natural sciences. social thinkers sought to develop a scientific understanding of social life, believing that their work might enable people to reach their CUU potential. The contributions of Isaac Newton (lti42-1727) to modem science. including the discovery of the Jaws of gravity and motion and the development of calculus. inspired social thinkers to believe that similar advances could be made in the systematic study of human behavior. As Newton advanced the cause of physics and the natural sciences, he was viewed by many as the model of a true scientist. Moreover, his belief that the universe is an orderly, self-regulating system Strongly influenced the thinking of early social theorists.
hlgh-lncomecountrles (sometimes referred to as Industrial countries) nations with highly industrialized trialled economies; technologically advanced industrial administrative. and service occupations; and relatively high levels of national and perso -al income. middle-income countries (sometimes referred to as developing countries) nations with industrialIzing economies and moderate levels of national and personal Income. low-income countries (sometimes referred to as underdeveloped countries) nations with little Industrialization and low levels of national and income.