Tennies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschnt:
Sociologist Ferdinand 'Iounies (1855-1936) used the terms Gemeinsduift and Gr5~1l5~haft to characterize the degree of social solidarity and social control found in societies. He was especially concerned about what happens to social solidarity in a society when a "loss of community" occurs. The Gemeinsdiaft (guh-MINE-shoft) is a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerationaJ stability. These relationships are based on ascribed rather than achieved status. In such societies, people have a commitment to the entire group and feel a sense of togetherness, Tennies (1963/1887) used the German term Gemc nschaf because it means "commune" or "community": social solidarity and social control are maintained by the community. Members have a strong sen e of belonging, but they also have very limited privacy.
By contrast, the Gesell ch (guh-ZELL-shift) is a large, urban society in social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized' relationships, with little long-term commitment tilt the group or ,consensus on values. In such societies, most people are "strangers" who perceive that they have very little in common with most other people. Consequently, selfinterest dominates, and little consensus exists regarding values. Tennies (1963/1887) selected the German term Gesellschaft because it means "association"; relationships are based on achieved statuses, and interactions among people are both rational and calculated