Stability and Change Un Societies
How do societies maintain some degree of social solidarity in the face of the changes we have described? As you may recall from Chapter I, theorists using a functionalist perspective focus on the stability of societies and the importance of equilibrium even in times of rapid social change. By contrast, conflict perspectives highlight how societies go through continuous struggles for scarce resources and how innovation,
rebellion, and conquest may bring about social change. Sociologists Emile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tennies developed typologies to explain the processes of stability and change in the social structure of societies. A typology is a classification scheme containing two or more mutually exclusive categories that are used to compare different kinds of behavior or types of soeties.