Societies, Technology and Sociocultural Change
As we think about homeless people today. it is difficult to realize that for people in some societies. being without a place of residence is a way of life. Where people live and the mode(s) of production they use to generate a food supply are related to subsistence technology the methods and tools that are available for acquiring the basic needs of daily life. Social scientists have identified five types of societies based on various levels of subsistence technology: hunting and gathering. horticultural and pastoral. agrarian. industrial. and postindustrial
societies. The first three of these-hunting and gathering. horticultural and pastoral. and agrarian are also referred to as postindustrial societies. According to the social scientists Gerhard Lenski and Jean Lenski, societies change over time through the process of sociology cultural evolution, the changes that occur as a society gains new technology (see Nolan and Lenski, 1999). However. not all anthropologists and sociologists agree 011 the effects of new technology.