Residential patterns are interrelated with the authority structure and method of tracing descent in families. Patriotically residence refers to the custom of a married couple living in the same household (or community) as the husband's family. Across cultures, patriotically residency is most common. One example of contemporary patriotically residency can be found in al-Barbra, a lower-middle-class neighborhood in the Jordanian city of Ir bid (McCann, 1997). According to researchers. the high cost of renting an apartment or building a new home has resulted in many sons building their own livi ng quarters onto their parents' home, resulting in multifamily households consisting of an older married couple, their unmarried children, their married sons, and their sons' wives and children. Few societies have residential patterns known as matricidal residence-the custom of a married couple living in the same household (or community) as the wife's parents. In industrialized nations such as the United States. most couples hope to live in a Caloocan residence-the custom of a married couple living in their own residence apart from both the husband's and the wife's parents. To this point. we have examined a variety of marriage and family patterns found around the world. Even with the diversity of these patterns. most pea· ple's behavior is shaped by cultural rules pertaining to monogamy and monogamy. Monogamy is the practice of marrying within one's own group. In the United States. for example, most people practice monogamy They marry people who come from the same social class. racial-ethnic group. religious affiliation. and other categories considered important within their
own social group. Social scientists refer to this practice as homo gamy-the pattern of individuals marrying those who have similar characteristics, such as race ethnicity, religious background, age, education, and/or social class. Homo gamy is similar to monogamy; however. issues pertaining to why people marry within their own group (monogamy) are somewhat different from the issues associated with why people choose to marry persons with similar characteristics and social status (homo gamy). Various reasons have been given to explain why monogamy is so prevalent. One reason may be the proximity of other individuals in one's own group as contrasted with those who are geographically separated from it. Another reason may be that a person's marriage choice is often influenced by the opinions of parents. friends. and other people with whom the person associates (Kalmijn, 1998).
Although monogamy is the strongest marital pattern in the United States, more people now marry outside their own group. Monogamy is the practice of marrying outside one's own social group or category. Depending on the circumstances, monogamy may not be noticed at all, or it may result in a person being ridiculed or ostracized by other members of the "in" group. The three most important sources of positive or negative sanctions for intermarriage are the family. the church. and the state. Participants in these social institutions may look unfavorably on the marriage of an in-group member to an "outsider" because of the belief that it diminishes social cohesion in the group (Kalmijn.1998). However. educational attainment is also a strong indicator of marital choices. Higher education emphasizes individual achievement. and college-educated people may be less likely than others to identify themselves with their social or cultural roots and thus more willing to inarry outside their own social group or category if their potential partner shares a similar level of educational attainment (Hwang, Saenz, and Aguirre, 1995;Kalmijn, 1998).