Since the 1950. postindustrial cities have emerged in nations Such as the United States as their economic’s have gradually shifted from secondary (manufactureing) production to tertiary (service and information processing) production. Postindustrial cities increasingly rely on an economic structure that is based on scientific knowledge rather than industrial production. and as a result, a class of professionals and technicians grows in size and inlluem Postindustrial cities are
dominated hy “light” industry. such as software manufacturing; informational-processing services, such asairline and hotel reservation services, educational complexes; medical centers; convention and entertainment centers; and retail trade centers and shopping malls. Most families do not live close to a central business
district. Technological advances in communication and transportation make it possible for middle- and upper-income Individuals and families to have more
work optlons and to live greater distances from the workplace; however, these options arc not often available to people of color and those at the lower end of the
class structure. On a global basis, cities such as New York, London, and Tokyo appear to fit the model of the postindustrial city (see Sassen, 2001). These cities have experienced a rapid growth in knowledge-based industries such as financial services. London. Tokyo, and New York have-at least until recently-experienced an increase in the number of highly paid professional jobs, and more workers have been in high-income categories. Many people have benefited for a number of years
from these high incomes and ha e created a lifestyle that is based on materialism and the gentrification of urban spaces. Meanwhile, those persons outside the growing professional categories have seen their own quality andlife further deteriorate and their job opportunities become increasingly restricted to secondary
labor markets in their respective “global” cities.