New Social Movement Theory
New social movement theory looks at a diverse array of collective actions and the manner in which those actions are based in politics, ideology. and culture. It Also incorporates factors of identity. including race. class. gender. and sexuality. as sources of collective action and social' movements. Examples of "new social movements" include conformism and environmental environmental justice movements. Eco Feminism emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s out of the feminist. peace. and ecology movements. Prompted by the near meltdown at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. ecofeminists established World Women in Defense of the Environment Ec,Jj~mi/Jism is based on the belief that patriarchy is a root cause of environmental problems. According to ecofeminists, patriarchy not only results in the domination of women by men but also contributes to a belief that nature is to he possessed and dominated. rather than treated as a partner (see Ortner, 1974; Merchant. 1983.1992; Mies and Shiva, 199.' . Another "new social movement" focuses on environment l justice and the intersection of race and class in the environmental struggle (see "Sociology Works!"), Sociologist Stella M. Capek (1993) investigated a contaminated landfill in the Carver Terrace neighborhood of Texarkana. Texas, and found that residents were able to mobilize for change and
win a federal buyout and relocation hy symbolically linking their issue to a larger environmental justice .