MOBILITY AIDS AND BARRIERS.
Even in a relatively open class society, upward mobility is not open equally to everyone. As pointed out before, middle-class children typically have learning experiences which are more helpful in gaining upward mobility than the experiences of lower-class children. Conflict scholars maintain that credentials, tests. recommendations, the "old-boy network,"! and overt discrimination against racial and ethnic and lower-class persons seriously limit upward mobility while protecting ~he children of the upper classes from downward. mobility. The argument over whether public schools' and community colleges are an aid or barrier to upward 'mobility has been discussed in Chapter 12. To whatever degree opportunities are unequal, mobility' chances are also unequal. , There are also structural aids to mobility. Antidiscrimination legislation is an important one, and publicly financed job training programs led to marked increases in employment .and modest gains in income for many low level workers' [Hougland, Christenson, and Walls, .~982]:"Yhile the impact of various aids and barriers to mobility is difficult to measure, they are undoubtedly important factors.