A mass is not the same as a crowd. The spectators at a football game are a crowd; those watching the game at home on television are a mass. Ho ult [1969, p. 194] defines a mass as a' "relatively large number of persons, spatially dispersed and anonymous, reacting o one or more of the same stimuli but acting individually without regard for one another." .Mass behaviors the unionized, unstructured, uncoordinated, individually chosen behavior of masses. It differs from crowd behavior in that crowd behavior is brief and episodic and is acted out by people as a group, whereas mass behavior is more enduring and arises from the sum total of many individual actions. Also, crowds are aggregations of people in immediate social interaction with one another; masses are scattered and in no direct, continuous contact with one another. Masses cannot mill and interact as crowds do. When many people, acting individually rather than
as a group, move in the same direction, this is mass behavior. A flight of refugees or the popularity of video games are examples .