Both primary and secondary groups have some type of leadership or positions that enable certain people to be leaders. or at least to wield power over others. From a functionalist perspective, if groups exist to meet the instrumental and expressive needs of their members, then leaders are responsible for helping the group meet those needs. Instrumental leadership is goal or task oriented; this type of leadership
is most appropriate when the group's purpose is to complete a task or reach a particular goal. Expressive leadership provides emotional support for members; this type of leadership is most appropriate when the group is dealing with emotional issues. and harmony solidarity, and high morale are needed. Both kinds of leadership are needed for groups to work effectively.
Traditionally, instrumental and expressive leader ship roles have been limited by gender socialization. Instrumental leadership has been linked with men, whereas expressive leadership has been linked with women. Sod al change in recent years has somewhat blurred the distinction between gender-specific leadership characteristics, but these outdated stereotypes have not completely disappeared (Basow, (992)