Kinds of Social Movements
MIGRATORY MOVEMENT Discontented people may wish to move. When many move to the same place at the same time, they create a migratory social movement. Migration of Irish to the United States following the great
potato famine, the back-to-Israel movement of Ute Jews known as Zionism, the flight of the East Germans to West Germany before the Berlin Wall locked them in, the escape of Cuban refugees to the.United States, and the
American migratory turnaround (from big cities. to small towns and country) are examples. EXPRESSIVE MOVEMENTS. When people cannot
easily move and cannot easily change things, they. may change themselves. In expressive movements, people change their reactions to reality instead of trying to change the itself. Expressive movements range from the relatively trivial (forms of dance, art, music, dress) to the serious (religious movements, occultism). Expressive movements may' help people to accept a entreaty they despair f changing. "Gallows humor" is common among oppressed peoples. Yet some change may result. The protest songs of the 1960s . and early 1970s may have helped to promote some social reforms. In Jamaica, where poerty and inequality are extreme and economic distress has been growing, a music of social protest called reggae has seized the popular imagination. It has created millionaire superstar
performers who live, the good life while singing impassioned lyrics of anger and injustice [Bradshaw, 1977; DeVoss, 1977; Roberts and Kloss, 1979, pp. 111-113]. It is not yet clear whether reggae serves to arouse and mobilize popular discontent or to drain off discontent into a politically "harmless" emotional outlet. UTOPIAN MOVEMENTS. These are attempts to create a perfect society in miniature. Then this model can be copied and perhaps transform the entire society. There have been dozens of utopian communities in the United States, few' of which lasted more than a very
few years [Gardner, 1978]. Perhaps the most successful utopian movement in recent history is the Israeli kibbutz [Spiro, 1958; Tiger and Shepher, 1975].
These are attempts to improve the society without greatly changing its basic social structure. They are common in democratic societies and rare in societies where dissent is not tolerated. U.S. history shows dozens of reform movements abolitionists prohibitionists, feminists, environmentalists, gay liberalizations, and many others.Hundreds. more would-be reform movements never get past the one-person with mailing-list stage.reform is impossible under the existing social system. They see basic change as possible only after the existing system is overthrown and the elite classes are deposed, often through execution or exile. In most revolutions, several actions unite to overthrow the existing regime, after which there -may be a bloody struggle for power among these, factions.
The course of revolution is illustrated in the recent Ira nian revolution: (1) growing discontent and erosion. of support for the old regime (Iranians at home and abroad demonstrating against the Shah); (2) increasing disorder, riots, and bombings, with growing inability of the government to maintain order despite harsh repression; (3) overthrow of the government (flight of the Shah) as armed forces join the revolution; (4) temporary rule of moderates (Bani-Sadr, Ghotbzadeh), soon overthrown as revolutionists contend for power among themselves; (5) rule of extremists (Khomeini government of Moslem fundamentalists); (6) reign of terror, with harsh repression of those revolutionists who lost out in bid for power (numerous executions, including Ghotbzadeh); (7) invasion from abroad (either to end revolution, as in American, French, and Russian revolutions, or just to settle old scores, as in Iraq's attack on Iran); (8) revolutionary armies fight well and repel invaders; (9) eventual return to stability,perhaps with partial restoration of prerevolutionary order (w ich does not always happen). Most successful revolutions follow this pattern more or less closely [Edwards, 1927; Brinton, 1938; Salert, 1976; Welch, 1980]. RESISTANCE MOVEMENTS. The Ku Klux Klan appeared in the South to keep the blacks "in their place" after the Civil War [Mecklin,1924]. It has reappeared at intervals in various. parts of the country as a nativist movement to protect the "real Americans" against blacks,Catholics, foreigners, atheists, and liberals [VanderZanden, 1960; Alexander, 1965]. The many social and cultural changes of