IMPORTANCE OF SELF-IMAGE
A'5 already hinted, personal self-imaging highly. active factory in behavior. 'There is a great deal of research showing the importance of self-image. In Campbell's The Sent of with- Being in America, he found that of all factors related to "satisfaction with life," one's feelings of "satisfaction with self" ranked highest, with "standard of living" second and "satisfaction with family life" third [Campbell, 1981, p. 48). The famous study Equality of Educational Opportunity [Coleman, 1966, pp . . 319-325] found that the most important personality characteristic associated with school learning was the child's self-concept and sense of control over its environment-that is, the .child's feeling that its efforts would make a difference. Effective teaching in school, plant, or army rests building the learner's self confidence [Leviton, 1975]. Conversely, the lack of a satisfactory self-image nearly always cripples learning or task performance. Studies of some years ago, for example, showed black school children had rower self-esteem than white children, and this was believed be a factor in black children's poorer performance. Recent studies however longer find lower levels of self-esteem black children [Greenberg, 1972; Beglis Sheikh, 1974; Hilbary, 1975]. This may are missed, it may be possible but difficult to acquire them later in life [Erikson, 1963, 1968 Roazen, 1976].
Erikson's theories have been- highly . He popularized the .term identity of doubt or. confusion Whether each leading is centered in its appropriate stage may be argued. Is the "identity versus role con fusion" crisis centered in adolescence does it arise at other times? Is "wisdom" a unique virtue of the aged? Like all theories of development , Erikson's are difficult to prove or to disprove.