Implementation of Ethnic Group Rights
Soon after the enactment of the civil rights legislation of the 1950 s and 1960 s became clear that many blacks would still be poor.
Thus, the claim arose that disadvantaged ethnic minorities were entitled not only to equal opportunities but to equal rewards-the
.group-rights concept. . There are four main policies which American society has followed in recent years in dealing with the ethnic group rather than with individuals. These are (1) bilingual instruction, (2) affirmative action, (3) busing for racial balance, and (4) welfare and social legislation. Sociologists have played an ambivalent role in the development of these programs. Many of the programs were implemented by court orders. The testimony of sociologists was influential in the cull rt process, although sociological findings were often misunderstood, especially when they did not support judicial decisions [Wolf, 1981].