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Ideological Change

Ideologies rise and fall in popularity, For many years capitalism and democracy have come under attack by intellectuals such as Marcuse [1969], who were often repelled by the profit motive and, although not Communists, were attracted by the equality of life under communist rule. In recent years the pendulum has swung back, and it is -now the socialist-communist planned society which is under attack. What once was regarded as a perfect society is now' seen as a straightjacket which represses both intellectual freedom and the kind of economic initiative which promotes prosperity. Although the Soviet Union seems likely to survive beyond the fxpiration date of 1984 predicted by one ot its intellectuals [Amalrik, 1969], it hirdly stands as a socioeconomic success story. It has only been ab e to keep its satellite East European nations In line by the use of force, and refugees from communist countries continue to "vote with their feet" [Wrong, 1976, p. 6). In France, Revel and other intellectuals point to a capitalist A erica as the hope of the world and communism its downfall [Pryce-lones, 1977]. In the U ited State , scholars su h as others, as well as Friedman, argue that the "rule of the market" may be kinder to human rights than a massive welfare state in which the government decides all questions [Pochoretz, 1981]. George Gilder [1981] denies that capitalism is characterized by self-, ishness and describes it as centered in faith and reciprocal giving. After a long eclipse, c nservative philosophies are again r speectives life.

It is possible that Third World countries may yet turn to communism. On the other hand, they often see themselves as oppressed by both communist and capitalist countries and seek to avoid policies which make them a complete vassal of-either camp.

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