Functionalist Perspectives: Ecological Models
The Concentric Zone Model Burgess’s concentric z,,,,e model is a description of the process of urban growth that views the city as a series of circular areas or zones, each characterized by a different type of land use. that developed from a central core (see. Figure 1 is the central business district and cultural center. In Zone 2, houses formerly occupied by wealthy families are divided into rooms and rented to recent immigrants and poor persons: this zone also contains light manufacturing and marginal businesses (such as secondhand stores. pawnshops. and taverns). ZOJ/e 3 contains working-class residences and shops and ethnic enclaves. Zelle 4 comprises homes for affluent families. single-family residences of whitecollar workers. and shopping centers. Zone 5 is a ring of small cities and towns populated by persons who commute to the central city to work and by wealthy people living on estates. Two important ecological processes are involved in the concentric zone theory; invasion and succession. Invasion is the process by which a new category of
people or type of land use arrives in an area previously occupied by another group or type of land use (McKenzie. 1925). For example. Burgess noted that recent immigrants and low-income individuals “invaded” Zone 2. formerly occupied by wealthy families. Succession Is the process by which a new category of people or type of land use gradually predominates in an area formerly dominated by another group or activity (McKenzie, 1925). in Zone 2. for example. when some of the single-family residences were sold and subsequently divided into multiple housing units.
the remaining single-family owners moved out because the “old” neighborhood had changed. As a result of their move. the process of invasion was complete and succession had occu rrcd, Invasion and succession theoretically operate in an outward movement: Those who are unable to “move out” of the inner rings are those without upward social mobility. so the central zone ends up being primarily
occupied by the poorest residents-except when gentrification occurs. Gentrification Is the process by which members of the middle and upper-middle.