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Formal and Informal

I orns Not all n0t Sure of equal importance; those that are most crucial are formalized. Parental norms are written down and involve specific punishments for violators. Laws are the most common type of formal norms; they have been codified and may be enforced by sanctions. Sanctions are rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior. Examples of positive sanctions include praise, honors. or medals for conformity to specific norms. Negative sanctions rung from mild disapproval (0 the death penalty. In the case of law, atonal sanctions are dearly defined and can be administered only by persons in certain official positions (such as police officers and judges). who are given the authority to impose the sanctions. Norms considered to be less important arc referred to as informal norms-unwritten standards of behavior understood by people who share a common identity. When individuals violate informal norms. other people may apply informal .actions. informal sanctions are not clearly defined and can be applied by any member of a group (such as frowning at someone or making a negative comment or gesture).

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