EDUCATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
These two views of American schools are both correct. In recent decades, school expenditures increased greatly, experimental programs multiplied, dropout rates fell, and efforts to make school effective for all parts of the-population increased dramatically. Salaries of teachers went up twice as much as earnings in general during the 1960s [Moynihan. 1972]. Yet problems multiplied, Complaints of violent~and disruptive conduct and learning failures abound. The retrenchment in the early 1980s in educational expenditures is partly explained by disillusionment with previous efforts. School expenditures are being trimmed, while teachers’ salaries are falling behind the cost of living. This situation is not unique to the United States but is worldwide’ [Simmons and Alexander, 1978, p. 353], Why does education have both such tremendous achievements and such enormous problems? . The sociologist looks for explanations of education’s problems’ and achievements in the system of social relations in Yi.hi0 the schools operate. So let us begin by aSking how schools developed.