Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). men are more likely to be victimized by crime. although women tend to be more fearful of crime. par- ticularly crimes directed toward them, such as forcible rape (Warr, 2000). Victimization surveys indicate that men are the most frequent victims of most crimes of violence and theft. Among males who are now 12 years old, an estimated 89 percent will be the victims of a violent crime at least once during their lifetime, as compared with 73 percent of females. The elderly also tend to be more fearful of crime but are the least likely to be victimized. Young men of color between the ages of 12 and 24 have the highest criminal victimization rates. In 2007, African American males were more likely to be victimized than African American females. younger African Americans were more likely to be the victims of violent crime than older African Americans, African Americans with lower annual incomes were at greater
risk of violence than those in households with higher annual incomes, and African Americans living in urban areas were more likely than those in suburban or rural areas to be victims of crime (U.S. Department of Justice Statistics, 2008).
A study by the Justice Department found that Native Americans are more likely to be victims of violent crimes than are members of any other racial category and that the rate of violent crimes against Native American women was about 50 percent higher than that for African American men (Perry. 2004). During the period covered in the study (from 1992 10 2002). Native Americans were the victims of violent crimes at a rate m0re than twice the national average. They were also more likely to be the victims of violent crimes committed by members of a race other than their own (Perry, 2004). There has been a shift over the past twenty years in which more Native Americans have moved from reservations to urban areas. In the cities they do not tend to live in segregated areas, so they come into contact more often with people of other racial and ethnic groups, whereas African Americans and whites are more likely to live in segregated areas of the city and commit violent crimes against other people in their same racial OJ' ethnic category. According to the survey, the average annual rate at which Native
Americans were victims of violent crime-I 01 crimes per 1.000 people. ages 12 or older-is about two-and- halftimes the national average of 4[ crimes per 1.000 people who are above the age of 12. By comparison, the average annual rate for whites was 41 crimes per 1.000 people; for African Americans, 50 per 1.000; and [or Asian Americans, 22 per 1,000 (Perry, 2004). TI1e burden of robbery victimization falls more
heavily on some' categories of people than others. NCVS data indicate that males are robbed at almost twice the rate of females. african Americans are more than twice as likely to be robbed as whites. Young people have a much greater likelihood of being robbed than middle-aged and older persons. Persons from lower-income families are more likely to be robbed than people from higher-income families (U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2008).