Contemporary Education in Other Nations
dents are expected to respond in unison to questions posed by the teacher. Students arc expected to be fluent in more than one language; any Japanese high schools teach English. particularly vocabulary and sentence construction. Science and math courses are challenging. and Japanese students often take courses such as algebra and calculus several years before their U.S.counterparts. Students must be prepared or a variety of college entrance examinations because each college and university gives its own test. and all tests occur within a few weeks of one another. Girls and young women in the United States would likely feel stifled by the lack of educational opportunities experienced by heir counterparts in Japan. Although there have been some changes, many parents and educators still believe that a good junior college education is all that young women need in order to be employable and marriageable (White, 1994).
\At the college and university level. the absence of women as students and professors is especially profound. Although a woman in the 1990 became the first-ever female president f a state-run university (Nora Women's University) in Japan, women account for fewer than 5 percent of all presidents of colleges and universities (Find lay Kane, 1997) Moreover, the lack of child-care facilities within the universities remains a pressing problem for omen students and faculty in Japanese higher education.
Young men also experience extreme pressures in the Japanese system. In fact. high etas f school truancy occur as tens of thousands of students balk at going to school, and still others experience school related health problems such as stomach ulcers. allergy disorders, and high blood pressure (White, 1994).
Education in Germany Residents of Germany have long believed that education is important (or the future of individual citizens and for heir country. A belief in compulsory education in Germany can be traced back to the theologian and professor Martin Luther. who. in the sixteenth century.
strongly urged that all children needed schooling not only in basics-such as reading, writing, and arithmetic-but also in chits. obedience. and duty. With the formation of the German Empire in the late loos. four distinct types of secondary schools were introduced that remain central to how a student is educated in Germany in the twenty-Ii est century.
Today. about 82.4 million people live in Germany. a nation that is slightly smaller than the state of Montana. Because each state has its own unique political, cultural. and religious radiations, it also has its own ministry of education. and state and local authorities typically control primary and secondary education. At the national level, a Conference of Ministers of Education (KMK) coordinates the stales' educational efforts.