Collective behavior 15 voluntary. often bounteousness a(livity that is engaged In by a large number of people and typically violates dominant-group norms and values. Unlike the organizational behavioral found In corporations and voluntary associations (such as labor unions and environmental organizations). collective behavior lacks an official division of labor, hierarchy of authority. and established rules and procedures. Unlike institutional behavior (in education. religion. or politics. for example). it lacks institutionalized norms to govern behavior. Collective behavior can take various forms. including crowds. mobs, riots. panics, fads. fashions. and public opinion. According to the sociologist Steven M. Buechler (2000). early sociologists studied coll active behavior because they lived in a world that was responding to the processes of modernization. including urbanization, industrialization. and proletarian of workers. Contemporary forms of collective behavior. particularly social protests. are variations on the themes that originated during the transition from feudalism. to capitalism and the rise of modernity in Europe (Buechler. 2000). Today, some forms c5f collective behavior
and social movements are directed toward public issues such as air pollution. water pollution. and the exploitation of workers in glohal sweatshops by transnational corporations (see Shaw. 1999). For example. Riverkeeper, the group of environmental activists who protect the Hudson River, mounts campaigns to lobby members oi Congress. The members of this organization ana its volunteers also focus more widely on a number of environmental concerns about waterways
in many regions .