The Sociological Perspective


Economics Unlike the other social sciences we have discussed economics concentrates primarily on a single institution in society-the economy (see Chapter 13. “The Economy and Work in Global Perspective”). Economists attempt to explain how the limited resources of a society are allocated among competing demands. Economics is divided into two different branches. Macroeconomics looks at such issues as the local amount of goods …

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Psychology Psychology is the systematic study of behavior and mental processes-what ogists focus net.only-on bravo rt ia IS directly observable. such as talking. laughing. and eating. but also 011 mental processes that cannot be directly observed. such as thinking and dreaming. For psychologists. behavior and mental processes are interwoven; therefore. to understand behavior. they examine the emotions that underlie people’s actions. For …

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Anthropology Anthropologists and sociologists are interested in studying human behavior; however, there arc differences between the two disciplines, Anthropology seeks to understand human existence over geographic space and evolutionary time (American Anthropological Association. 2001). whereas sociology seeks to understand contemporary social organization. relations. and change. Some anthropologists focus on the beginnings of human history. millions of years ago, whereas others primarily study contemporary societies. …

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Comparing Sociology with Other Social Sciences

Comparing Sociology with Other Social Sciences In this chapter. we have discussed how sociologists examine social life. We have focused on shopping and consumption as an example of the many topics studied by sociologists and other social scientists. Let’s briefly examine how other social sciences investigate human relationships and then compare each discipline to sociology.

In Sum

In Sum Clearly. the areas of interest and research in the social sciences overlap in that the goal of scholars. teachers. and students is to learn more about human behavior. including its causes and consequences. In applied sociology. there is increasing collaboration among researchers across disciplines to develop a more holistic, integrated view of how human behavior and social life take place …

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Differing Views on the Status Quo: Stability Versus Change

Differing Views on the Status Quo: Stability Versus Change Together with Karl Marx. Max Weber, and Georg Simmel, Durkheim established the course for modern sociology. We Will Look first at Marx’s and Weber’s Divergent thoughts about conflict and social change in societies, and then at Georg Simmel’s Analysis of society. Karl Marx In sharp contrast to Durkheim’s focus on the stability of …

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Max Weber

Max Weber German social scientist Max Weber  (pronounced VAY-ber) (1864-1920) was also concerned about the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution. Although he disagreed with Marx’s idea that economics is the central force in social change, Weber acknowledged that economic interests are important in shaping human action. Even so, he thought that economic systems are heavily influenced by other factors in …

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The predictability

The predictability The predictability of credit cards is easy to see. If the cardholder is current on paying bills and the merchant accepts that particular kind of card, the person knows that he or she will not be turned down on a purchase. Even the general appearance of the cards is highly predictable. Finally, the use of dermatologiCal control …

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Georg Simmel

Georg Simmel At about the same time that Durkheim was developing the field of sociology in France, the German sociologist Georg Simmel (pronounced ZIM-mel) (1858-1918) was theorizing about society as a web of patterned interactions among people. The main purpose of sociology, according to Simmel, should be to examine these social interaction processes within groups. In The Sociology of Georg Sinunel (J …

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The Beginnings of Sociology

The Beginnings of Sociology in the United States From Western Europe, sociology spread in the 18905 to the United States, where it thrived as a result of the intellectual climate and the rapid rate of social change. The first departments of sociology in the United States were located at the University of Chicago and at Atlanta University, then an African American …

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