Category Archive for: THE ECONOMY AND WORK IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

The Social Organization of Work

The Social Organization  of Work How do societies organize: work? As societies grow larger in population and more complex in their division  of labor, different categories of work are identifiedby government bureaucracies. In the United States. this is done by agencies such as the U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Census Bureau. These classifications are often somewhat arbitrary…

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Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Sociologists who focus on microlevel analyses are interested in how the economic system and the socialorganization of work affect people’s attitudes and behavior. Symbolic interactionists, in particular. have examined the factor  that contribute to job satisfaction. According to symbolic interactionists, work is an important source of self-identity for many people; it can help people feel positive about themselves.…

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Conflict Perspective

Conflict Perspective Conflict theorists have a different view of  cydes and the economic system. From a conflict perspective, business cycles are the result of capitalist greed. In order to maximize profits, capitalists suppress the wages of workers. As the prices of products increase, workers are not able to purchase them in the quantities that have been produced. The resulti ng…

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Perspectives on Economy and Work in the United States

Perspectives on Economy  and Work in the United States Functionalists. conflict theorists. and symbolic interactionists view the economy and the nature of work from a variety of perspectives. We first examine functionalist and conflict views of the economy; then we focus on the symbolic interactionist perspective on job satisfaction and alienation. Functionalist Perspective Functionalists view the economy as a vital…

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Mixed Economies

Mixed Economies As we have seen. no economy is truly capitalist or socialist; most economies are mixtures of both. A mixed economy combines elements of a market economy (capitalism) with elements of a command economy  (socialism . Sweden. Great Britain. and France havemixed economies, sometimes referred to as democratic socia/bm-an economic and political system that combines private ownership of some…

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Socialism

Socialism Socialism is an economic system characterized by public ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of collective goals, and centralized dedsion makIng. Like “pure” capitalism. “pure” socialism does not exist. Karl Marx described socialism as a temporary stage en route to an ideal communist society. Although the terms socialism and communism are associated with Marx and are often used interchangeably. they…

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Contemporary World Economic Systems

Contemporary World Economic Systems Throughout the twentieth century, capitalism and socialism were the principal economic models in industrialized countries. Sociologists often use two criteria criteria property ownership and market control-to distinguish between types of economies. However, keep in mind that no society has a purely capitalist or socialist economy. Capitalism Capitalism is an economic system characterized  by private ownership of the…

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Industrial Economies

Industrial Economies Industrialization brings sweeping changes _to the system of production and distribution of good\ and services. Drawing on new forms of energy (such “‘;;steam. gasoline. and electricity) and machine technology. factories  proliferate as the primary means of producing goods. Most workers engage in secondary sector production- the processing of raw materials (from roe primary sector) into finished goods. For…

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Postindustrial Economies

Postindustrial Economies Hunting and gathering. horticultural and pastoral.  and agrarian societies are all postindustrial economic structures. Most workers in these societies engage in primary sector production-the extraction of rue materials and natural resources from the environment. These materials and resources are typically consumed or used without much processing. For example. portions of contemporary sub-Saharan Africa have a relatively high rate of…

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Economic Systems in Global Perspective

Economic Systems in Global Perspective The economy is the social institution that ensures the  maintenance of society through the production, distribution. and consumption of goods and services.Goods are tangible objects that are necessary (such as food, clothing. and shelter) or desired (such as DVDs and electric toothbrushes). Services are intangible activities  for which people are willing to pay (such…

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