Category Archive for: Society,Social,Structure And Interaction

Bureaucracy and Oligarchy

Bureaucracy and Oligarchy Why do a small number of leaders at the top make all the important organizational decisions? According to the German political sociologist Robert Michels (1949/1911). all organizations encounter the iron law of oligarchy-the tendency to become a bureaucracy ruled by the few. His central idea was that those who control bureaucracies not only wield power but also have an…

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Alternative Forms of Organization

Alternative Forms of Organization Many organizations have sought new and innovative ways to organize work more efficiently than the traditional hierarchical model. In the early 19805.there was a movement in the United States-to humanize bureaucracy to establish an organizational environment that develops rather than impedes human resources. More-humane bureaucracies are characterized by (1) less-rigid hierarchical structures and greater sharing of power and responsibility by…

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Organizational Structure in Japan

Organizational Structure in Japan For several decades. the Japanese model of organization has been widely praised for its innovative structure. Let’s briefly compare the characteristics of large Japanese corporations with their U.S.-based counterparts. Long-Term Employment and Company Loyalty Until recently.many Japanese employees remained with the same company for their entire career. whereas their Organizational Structure in Japan For several decades. the Japanese model…

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Quality Circles

Quality Circles Small work groups made up of about five to fifteen workers who meet regularly with one or two managers to discuss the group’s performance and working conditions are known as quality circles. The purpose of this team approach to management is both to improve product quality and to lower product costs. Workers are motivated to save the corporation…

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Organizations in the Future

Organizations in the Future What is the best organizational structure for the future? Of course. this question is difficult to answer because it requires the ability to predict economic. politi- cal, and social conditions. Nevertheless. we can make several observations. Organizational theorists have suggested-a horizontal model for corporations in which both hierarchy and functional or departmental boundaries would largely be eliminated. In the…

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According to sociologists

According to sociologists We need groups and organizations-just as we need culture and socialization to live and participate in a society. Historically. the basic premise of groups and organizations was that individuals engage in face-to-face interactions in order to be part of such a group; however. millions of people today communicate with others through the Internet. cell phones. and other forms of…

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Dramaturgical Analysis

Dramaturgical Analysis Erving Goffman suggested that day-to-day interactions have much in common with being on stage or in a dramatic production. Dramaturgical analysis is the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation. Members of our “audience” judge our performance and are aware that we may slip and reveal our true character (Golt’man, 1959, 1963a). Consequently, most of…

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Social Interaction and Meaning

Social Interaction and Meaning When you are with other people. do you often won Because most of liS are concerned about the meanings that others ascribe to our ehavior. we try to interpret their words and actions so that we can plan how we will react toward them (Blumer, 1969). We know that others have expectations of us. We also…

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Ethnomethodology

Ethnomethodology How do we know how to interact in a given situation? What rules do we follow? Ethnomethodologists are interested in the answers to these questions. Ethnomethodology is the study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves (Heritage, 1984: 4). Sociologist Harold Garfinkel (1967) Initiated this approach and coined the term: ethno for…

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The Sociology of Emotions

The Sociology of Emotions Why do we laugh. cry. or become angry? Are these emotional expressions biological or social in nature? To some extent. emotions are a biologically given sense (like hearing, smell, and touch), but they are also social in origin. We are socialized to feel certain emotions. and we learn how and when to express (or not express) those…

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