Society,Social,Structure And Interaction

Crime Victims

Crime Victims Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). men are more likely to be victimized by crime. although women tend to be more fearful of crime. par- ticularly crimes directed toward them, such as forcible rape (Warr, 2000). Victimization surveys indicate that men are the most frequent victims of most crimes of violence and theft. Among males who are …

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Hierarchy of Authority

Hierarchy of Authority In a bureaucracy. each lower office is under the control and supervision of a higher one. Those few individuals at the top of the hierarchy have more power and exercise more control than do the many et the lower levels. Those who are lower in the hierarchy report to (and often take orders from) those above them …

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Rules and Regulations

 Rules and Regulations Rules and regulations establish authority within an organization. These rules are typically standardized and provided to members in a written format. in theory, written rules and regulations offer dear-cut standards (or determining satisfactory performance so that each new member does not have to reinvent the rules.

Qualification-Based Employment

Qualification-Based Employment Bureaucracies require competence and hire staff members and professional employees based on specific qualifications. Individual performance is evaluated against specific standards, and promotions are based on merit as spelled out in personnel policies. Impersonality require that everyone must play by the same rules and be treated the same. Personal feelings should not Interfere with organizational decisions.

Contemporary Applications of Weber’s Theory

Contemporary Applications of Weber’s Theory How well do Weber’s theory of rationality and his ideal type characteristics of bureaucracy withstand the test of time? More than a century later, many organizational theorists still apply Weber’s perspective. For example, the sociologist George Ritzer used Weber’s theories to examine fast-food restaurants such as McDonald’s. According to Ritzer, the process of-McDonaldization become a global phenomenon …

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The Informal Side of Bureaucracy

The Informal Side of Bureaucracy When we look at an organizational chart, the official. formal structure of a bureaucracy is readily apparent. In practice, however, a bureaucracy has patterns of activities and interactions that cannot be accounted for by its organizational chart These have been referred to as bureaucracy’s other face (Page, 1946). The informal side of a bureaucracy is …

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Positive and Negative Aspects of Informal Structure

Positive and Negative Aspects of Informal Structure Is informal structure good or bad? Should it be controlled or encouraged? Two schools of thought have emerged with regard to these questions. One approach emphasizes control (or eradication) of informal groups; the other suggests that they should be nurtured. Traditional management theories are based on the assumption that people are basically lazy and motivated …

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Problems of Bureaucracies

Problems of Bureaucracies The chnracterlsncs that mnke up Weber’s “rational” model of bureaucracy have a dark side that has free quently given this type of organization a bad name. Three of the major problems of bureaucracies are (I) inefficiency and rigidity. (2) resistance to change, and (3) perpetuation of nice. class. and gender inequalities. Inefficiency and Rigidity Bureaucracies experience inefficienc}, and rigidity …

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Resistance to Change

Resistance to Change Once bureaucratic organizations are created, they tend to resist change. TII is resistance not only makes bureaucracies virtually impossible to eliminate but also contributes to bureaucratic enlargement. Because of the assumed relationship between size and importance, officials tend to press for larger budgets and more staff and office space. To justify growth. administrators and managers must come up with …

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Perpetuation of Race

Perpetuation of Race Class, and Gender Inequalities Some bureaucracies perpetuate inequalities of race, class, and gender because this form of organizational structure creates a specific type of work or learning environment. This structure was typically created for middle- and upper-middle-class white men, who for many years were the predominant organizational participants. For people of color, entry into dominant white bureaucratic organizations does not …

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