Category Archive for: Socialization

Cooley, Mead, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives

Cooley, Mead, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives Social constructionism is a term that is applied to theories that emphasize the socially created nature of social life. This perspective is linked to symbolic interactionist theory, and its roots can be traced to the Chicago School and early theorists such as Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead.

Gilligan’s View on Gender and Moral Development

Gilligan’s View on Gender and Moral Development Psychologist Carol Gilligan (b. 1936) is one of the major critics of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. According to Gilligan (J 982), Kohlberg’s model was developed solely on the basis of research with male respondents, and women and men often have divergent views on morality based on differences in socialization and life experiences. Gilligan…

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Sociological Theories of Human Development

Sociological Theories of Human Development Although social scientists acknowledge the contributions of psychoanalytic and psychologically based explanations of human development, sociologists believe that it is important to bring a sociological perspective to bear on how people develop an awareness of self and learn about the culture in which they live. Accord ing to a sociological perspective, we cannot form a sense of self…

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Cooley and the Looking-Glass Self

Cooley and the Looking-Glass Self According to the sociologist Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929), the looking-glass s.elfreCers to the way in which a person’s sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others. Our looking-glass self is not who we actually are or what people actually think about us; rather, it is based on our perception of how other people think…

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The Family

The Family The family is the most important agent of socialization in all societies. From our infancy onward, our families transmit cultural and social values to us. As discussed later in this book, families vary in size and structure. Some families consist of two parents and their biological children, whereas others consist of a single parent and one or more childre-n.…

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Agents of Socialization

Agents of Socialization Agents of socialization are the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society, We are exposed to many agents of socialization throughout our lifetime; in turn, we have an influence on those socializing agents and organizations. Here, we look at the most pervasive ones in childhood-the family, the…

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Ecological Perspectives

Ecological Perspectives Another approach that emphasizes cultural or environmental influences on human development is the ecological perspective. One of the best-known ecological approaches is developmental psychologist Urie Brenner’s (1989) ecological systems theory. ecological systems in this theory are the interactions a child has with other people, and how those interactions are affected by other people and situations. The four ecological systems are…

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Recent Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives

Recent Symbolic Interventionist Perspectives The symbolic interventionist approach emphasizes that socialization is a collective process in which children are active and creative agents. not just passive recipients of the socialization process. From this view. childhood is a socially constructed category (Adler and Adler, 1998). Children are capable of actively constructing their own shared meanings as they acquire language skills and accumulate interactive experiences…

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Is socialization a one-way process?

Is socialization a one-way process? No, according to Mead. Socialization is a two-way process between society and the individual Just as the society in which we live helps determine what kind of individuals we become, we have the ability to shape certain aspects of our social environment and perhaps even the larger society, How useful are symbolic interactionist perspectives such as Cooley’s…

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Mead and Role-Taking

Mead and Role-Taking George Herbert Mead (1863- 1931) extended Cooley’s insights by linking the idea of self-concept to role-taldng-the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to understand the world from that person’s or group’s point of view. Role-taking often occurs through playand children try out different roles(such,or teacher) and gain an…

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