Category Archive for: Political Economic Institutions

Ideological Change

Ideological Change Ideologies rise and fall in popularity, For many years capitalism and democracy have come under attack by intellectuals such as Marcuse [1969], who were often repelled by the profit motive and, although not Communists, were attracted by the equality of life under communist rule. In recent years the pendulum has swung back, and it is -now the socialist-communist planned society which is…

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Religion and Government

Religion and Government “‘ Institutional functions change. Government has assumed many services once performed by family or church. ‘(Hugh Rogers/Monkmeyer Press Photo Service) transfusions, or immunizations on which groups such as Jehovah’s Witnesses or Christian Scientists may take issue with health ‘authorities. Amish parents may object to. sending their children to high school, and sometimes a pacifist sect or pacifist members of denominations…

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Physical Race Differences Are Unimportant

Physical Race Differences Are Unimportant All races are. approximately alike in every important physical characteristic. With a Yew exceptions (such as that a dark skin is useful under tropical sun), the differences are cosmetic not functional. The physical differences within the human species are very modest compared with the differences within’ many species-dogs or horses, for example. Most scientists today are agreed that all races…

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THE SCIENTIFIC VIEW OF RACE DIFFERENCES It is clear that the races differ in some inherited physical characteristics. May they also vary in their inborn intellectual and emotional characteristics? This is a reasonable logical possibility. Is it a fact? Is it true of nonracial ethnic groups as well?


AMALGAMATION AND ASSIMILATION Ethnic groups are not necessarily permanent I and sometimes disappear through assimilation or amalgamation. Assimilation refers to a cultural fusion ill which two groups blend their cultures so that they become one. There is usually an exchange of cultural traits, although this may be primarily-a case of one group absorbing the other’s culture. An example is “Americanization,in which immigrant groups…

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IDEOLOGY AND THE BUSINESS GOVERNMENT RELATIONSHIP Ideologies often develop to define the relationship of institutions to each other. This is an inevitable part of the function of ideologies, which have been described as beliefs that also carry implications for how people ought to behave and how society ought to be organized” [Smelser, 1976, p. 51).

The Underground Economy

The Underground Economy One reaction to inflation and high taxation is the growth of the so-called underground economy, variously at up to $500 billion a year the United States [MacAvoy, 1982]. In every industrialized country, including the Soviet ‘Union [Horoszowski, 1980; Simis, 1981] much of the economic activity is unreported and thus escapes government regulation and taxation. In Italy, for instance, it js..;stimated that…

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Inflationary Trends

Inflationary Trends What can governments’ do when confronted with demands which outrun their resources? To meet the demands is impossible to reject them may result in defeat at the next election or even a violent revolutionary overthrow. The answer-is repression or inflation or both. One why most developing countries turn toward some type of dictatorship is simply to stifle citizen demands.: If the…

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Welfare and Conflic

Welfare and Conflic Oddly enough, the welfare obligations assured by governments in recent years, which bring benefits to so many, have increased conflict. The reason for this is that ‘people’s wants are endless, while government resources are limited. Demands have a tendency to .rise far more rapidly than the national income rises, but if a-government tries to limit expenditures, it risks being overthrown. This…

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POLITICOECONOMIC CONFLICT AND COOPERATION Much of the argument over whether human society is primarily cooperative or competitive in nature focuses on governmental and economic activity. The functionalists see a system where the division of labor causes each to cooperate with others and thereby increase the wealth of all. They see government as a device to coordinate a united effort t~-get those things judged…

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