Group And Organization

leadership Styles

leadership Styles Three major styles of leadership exist in groups: authoritarian, democratic, and Marseillaise. Authoritarian leadel·s make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members. These leaders focus on the instrumental tasks of the group and demand compliance from others. In times of crisis. such as a war or natural disaster, authoritarian leaders may be commended for their decisive actions, In other …

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Leadership Functions

Leadership Functions Both primary and secondary groups have some type of leadership or positions that enable certain people to be leaders. or at least to wield power over others. From a functionalist perspective, if groups exist to meet the instrumental and expressive needs of their members, then leaders are responsible for helping the group meet those needs. Instrumental leadership is goal or …

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Group Leadership

Group Leadership What role do leaders play in groups? Leaders are responsible for.directing. plans and activities so that the group completes its task or fulfills its goals. Primary groups generally have informal leadership. For example. most of us do not elect or appoint leaders in our own families. Various family members ma},assume a leadership role:at various times or act as leaders …

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Group Size

Group Size The size of a group is one of its most important features. Interactions are more personal and intense in a small group, a collectivity small enough for all members to be acquainted with one another and to interact simultaneously Sociologist Georg Simmel (1950/1902-1917) suggested that small groups ‘have distinctive interaction patterns that do not exist in larger groups. Accoring to …

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Group Characteristics and Dynamics

Group Characteristics and Dynamics What purpose do groups serve? Why are individuals willing to relinquish some of their freedom to participate in groups? According to functionalists, people form groups to meet instrumental and expressive needs. Instrumental, or task-oriented, needs cannot always be met by one person, so the group works cooperatively to fulfill a specific goal. For example, think of how hard it …

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Networks A network is a web of social relationships that links one person with other people and, through them, with other people they know. Frequently, networks connect people who share common interests but who otherwise might not identify and interact with one another. For example, if A is tied to B, and B is tied to C, then a network is …

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Reference Groups

Reference Groups ln groups provide us not only with a source of identity but also with a point of reference. A reference group is a group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and sodal attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member. When we attempt to evaluate our appearance, ideas, or goals, we automatically refer to the standards of some …

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Sumner’s Ingroups and Outgroups

Sumner’s Ingroups and Outgroups All groups set boundaries by distinguishing between insiders. who are members, and outsiders. who are not Sociologist Willianl Graham Sumner (1959/1906) coined the terms ingroup and outgroup to describe people’s feelings toward members of their own and other groups. An ln group is a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense …

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Cooley’s Primary and Secondary Groups

Cooley’s Primary and Secondary Groups Sociologist Charles H. Cooley (1963/1909) used the term primary group to describe a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotionbased interactions over an extended period of time. We have primary relationships with other individuals in our primary groups-that is. with our significant others, who frequently serve as role models. In contrast. you will …

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Types of Groups

Types of Groups All you will groups have varying degrees of social solidarity and structure. This structure is flexible in some groups and more rigid in others. Some groups are small and personal; others are large and impersonal. We more closely identify with the members of some groups than we do with others.