The Irresponsibility of Science and Technology

The Irresponsibility of Science and Technology,  In one sense, science and technology cannot . be stopped once set in motion. Of course, we could forbid new scientific and technological research, but this would soon put us in the backwaters of history. All cicatrices is interrelated and interdependent, and discoveries in one field open new vistas in others. Marx may have been wrong it making the economic…

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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AS lNSTITUTIONS A scant century or two ago, science was Lhl private hobby of wealthy gentlemen of lei- sure. Science was of so little practical importance that throughout the Napoleonic Wars, scientists traveled freely between France and England to share their harmless conversations. Today, science is institutionalized. This means that it is recognized as highly important. It is standardized; scientists throughout the…

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Social-Class Differences in Learning

Social-Class Differences in Learning Why do lower children learn less well? It is possible that lower-class persons average lower in native abilities. This has been debated for generations without any clear decision. Even if we could agree in defining “native ability,” we have no measure of native ability which is widely accepted as reliable. Most educators are agreed that the lower achievement…

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DILUTION OF OBJECTIVES. When schools, whose students learn well are compared with schools whose students learn poorly, certain, differences are striking, even after allowance is made for differences in student family and class backgrounds. the distinctive features of schools with high levels of learning are: (1) order and discipline, so that students and teachers can concentrate upon learning.


DISTRACTING INFLUENCE. The baleful influence of television on school learning has already been mentioned. The possession of other diversions and often requires. a parttime job for its support, crowding out homework. The popular habit of having ~elevision or radio providing background noise during homework is, probably a distraction. Many other diversions compete for student attention. School activities apparently are not an unfavorable influence. Research finds…

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The Decline of Learning

The Decline of Learning Comparisons between nations are difficult but not impossible. The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement published’  volumes of comparative-achievement tlst findings between 1967 and 1977. The evidence clearly shows that American students did not work as hard or learn as much as students in other. developed countries [Lernc’V 1982]. Measures of changes in learning of American students over time…

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AMERICAN EDUCATION: SUCCESS OR FAILURE? Few nations of the world compare with the United States in educational expenditures or in average years, of schooling completed. Is our great effort a success?


FEDERAL INTERVENTION. The autonomy of educational institutions in recent years has been reduced by federal intervention. The , federal dollars which are so welcome have provided leverage for imposing federal standards and regulations. Anti discrimination legislation brought additional controls. The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare issued “guidelines” on the hiring and promotion of minorities and on sex discriminant in employment, curriculum, and…

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ACADEMIC TENURE. Academic tenure protects a teacher from summary dismissal either because of the teacher’s ideas or simply because of favoritism by principals and superintendents. Teachers ‘and professors may be – dismissed “for cause,” after orderly dismissal procedures, although this is rare and there is some justice to the claim that tenure protects mediocrity. Since tenure. makes dismissals- difficult, it is often attack 05…

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Educational Autonomy

Educational Autonomy Acadec;,nic freedom and academic tenure represent attempts to protect the independence of educators. ACADEMIC FREEDOM. The ideology of academic freedom means (1) that schools are to be run by educators with limited interference from others and (2) that scholars and professors can conduct research, can publish, and can teach without fear of reprisal even if the results of their research or…

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