Deviance And Crime

Rational Choice Theory

Rational Choice Theory Rational choice theory’s based on the assumption that when people are faced with several courses of action, they will usually do what they believe is likely to have the best overall outcome (Elster, 1989). The rational choice theory of deviance states that deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the cos and benefits of nonconvertible or crinoline behavior …

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Labeling Theory

Labeling Theory Labeling theory states that deviance is a socially constructed ‘Process In which social control agencies designate certain people as deviants, and they, in turn, come to accept the label placed upon them and begin to act accordingly. Based on the symbolic interaction theory of Charles. H. Cooley and George H. Mead (see Chapter 4). labeling theory focuses on the variety …

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Postmodernist Perspectives on Deviance

Postmodernist Perspectives on Deviance  Departing from other theoretical perspectives on deviance, some postmodern theorists emphasize that the study of deviance reveals how the powerful exert control over the powerless by taking away their free will to think and act as they might choose. From this approach, institutions such as schools, prisons, and mental hospitals use knowledge, norms, and values to categorize people into …

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How the Law Classifies Crime

How the Law Classifies Crime Crimes are divided into felonies anti misdemeanors. The. distinction between the two is based on the seriousness of the crime. A Felony is a major crime such as rape. homicide, or aggravated assault. for which punishment typically ranges from more than a year’s imprisonment to death. A misdemeanor is a minor crime – that is typically …

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Public Order CrIme

Public Order CrIme Public order crimes involve an illegal action voluntarily engaged in by the participants, such as prostitution. illegal gambling, the private use of illegal drugs, and possession of illegal pornography. Many people assert that such conduct should not be labeled as a crime; these offenses are often referred to as victimless crimes because they involve a willing exchange of illegal …

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Occupational and Corporate Crime

Occupational and Corporate Crime  Although the sociologist Edwin Sutherland (J 949) developed the theory of white-collar crime sixty years ago. it was not until the I 980s that the public became fully aware of its nature. Occupational (wlJite-collar) crimI! comprises illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs. In addition to acting for their own financial …

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Organized Crime

Organized Crime Organized crime is a business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit. Premeditated, continuous illegal activities of organized crime include drug trafficking, prostitution, loan-sharking, money laundering, and largescale theft such as truck’ hijackings (Simon, 1996). No single organization controls ull organized crime; rather, many groups operate at all levels of society. In recent decades, organized crime in the United …

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Political Crime

Political Crime The term political crime refers to illegal or unethical acts Involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow It. Government officials may use their authority unethically or illegallyfor the purpose of material gain or political power (Simon, 1996). They may engage …

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Crime Statistics

Crime Statistics How useful are crime statistics as a source of information about crime? As mentioned previously. official crime statistics provide important information on crime; however. the data reflect only those crimes that have been reported to the police. The number of violent-crime arrests decreased slightly (1.1 percent) in 2007 while the number of arrests for property crime increased S.4 percent, 1llese …

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Street Crimes and Criminals

Street Crimes and Criminals Given the limitations of official statistics, is it possible to determine who commits crimes? We have much more information available about conventional (street) crime than elite crime; therefore, statistics concerning street crime do not show who commits all types of crime. Gender, age, class, and race are important actors in official statistics pertaining to street crime.