Cultural Universals

Cultural Universals Because all humans face the same basic needs (such as lItror food. clothing. and shelter). we engage in similar activities that contribute to our survival. Anthropologist George Murdock (1945: 124) compiled a list of over seventy cultural universals=customs and practices that occur across all societies. His categories included appearance (such as bodily adomrnent and hairstyles), activities (such as sports, dancing, …

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Material Culture and Nonmaterial

Material Culture and Nonmaterial Culture Our cultural tool box is divided into two major parts material culture and nonmaterial culture (Ogburn, 196611922). Material culture consists of the physical or tangible creations that members of a society make. use. and share. Initially, items of material culture begin as raw materials or resources such as ore. trees, und oil. Through technology, these raw materials are transformed …

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The Importance of Culture

The Importance of Culture How important is culture in determining how people think and act on a daily basis? Simply stated, culture is essential for our individual survival and for our’ communication with other people. We rely on culture because we are not born with the Information we need to survive. We do not know how to take care of …

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Formal and Informal

Formal and Informal I orns Not all n0t Sure of equal importance; those that are most crucial are formalized. Parental norms are written down and involve specific punishments for violators. Laws are the most common type of formal norms; they have been codified and may be enforced by sanctions. Sanctions are rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior. Examples of …

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Folkways Norms

Folkways Norms Folkways Norms are also classified according to their relative social importance. Folkways are informal norms or everyday customs thatrmay be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture (Sumner. 1959/19(6). They provide rules for conduct but are not considered to be essential to society’s survival. In the United States, folkways include using underarm deodorant, brushing our teeth, and wearing appropriate clothing …

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Mores Other Norms

Mores Other Norms Mores Other Norms arc considered to be highly essential to the stability of society. Mores are a particular culture’s strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences. Because mores (pronounced MORays) are based on cultural values and are considered to be crucial for the well-being of the group, violators are subject …

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Laws Laws are formal  standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions. Laws may be either civil or criminal. Civil law deals with disputes among persons or groups. Persons who lose civil suits may encounter negative snnctions such as having to pay cornpensation to the other party or being …

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Technology Cultural Change and Diversity

Technology Cultural Change and Diversity Cultures do not generally remain static. There are many forces working toward change and diversity. Some societies and individuals adapt to this change, whereas others suffer culture shock and succumb to ethnocentrism.

Cultural Change

Cultural Change Societies continually experience cultural change at both material and non material levels. Changes in technology continue to shape the material culture of society. Although most technological changes are primarily modifications of existing technology, new technologies are changes that make a significant difference in many people’s lives. Examples of new technologies include the introduction of the printing press more than 500 years …

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Cultural Diversity

Cultural Diversity Cultural diversity refers to the wide runge of cultural differences found between and within nations. Cultural diversity between countries may be the result of natural circumstances (such as climate and geography) or social circumstances (such as level of technology and composition of the population). Some nations-such as Sweden-are referred to as homogeneous societies. meaning that they include people who share …

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