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Although role training may be largely unconscious, it is no less real. As it noted American educator has remarked "Adults ask little boys what they want to be when they grow up. They ask little girls where they got that pretty dress." No wonder that by adolescence boys were concerned about careers while girls were preoccupied with gentle married. This is no accident since a major p~rt Of the socialization process; consists of learning's the proper activities of men and women. The little girl played with dolls, helped mo~her in the housework, and was rewarded for being a "little lady," while learning that "tomboy" activities, though possibly tolerated, were not really "ladylike." The boy found out that dolls were for girls and that no worse fate could befall him than to be a "sissy." Many years of differential nailing, if consistent, will 'bring boys and girls to maturity With great differences in their responses, feelings, and preferences.

Every society handles many tasks by making them part of a sex role. Yet most of the sex-link tasks can be performed equally well by either men or women, provided they are socialized to accept the tasks as proper for them. Thus, in Pakistan men are household servants in the Philippines, pharmacists are usually women, while men are preferred secrets?es; in the Marquesas baby tending cooking, and housekeeping are' proper . hill women spend much of their time amputation-parts of world much the heavy agricultural labor IS per of formed by women.

Indians are recognized gender statuses which differ from both male and female sex statuses {Hill, 1935; Lurie, 1953; Voorhies, 1973; Forgey, 1975]. But in most societies no comfortable status is, open, to those whose -sex role' behavior falls outside those societies' approved alternatives.

Homosexuality (discussed in Chapter 6) is a status and role which is fiercely debated in our .society. Many considerations which presumably underlie our ascribed sex roles are themselves changing today. The assumption of vast innate sex differences in intellect and aptitude' , has been discredited. Greater dependability and availability of contraception and abortion has weakened the rationale for a double standard of sexual behavior. Declining family size means that women spend less time  childbearing and, child care. The shift from human to machine power means that greater masculine physical strength becomes less important. The growing concern for equal rights in recent years has led many women to become aware of .the vast inequalities they have' endured. For all 'these reasons man sex women today.are in full revolt against sex role ascription.