Apprenticeship may be the oldest educational institution, for it probably preceded formal schools. Some skills are mort;’ easily learned in the work place than in the classroom. Apprenticeship is the standard route for most skilled trades. Apprenticeship is common only where high levels of skill require extended training. Unions generally control apprenticeship, and the common rule requiring that an applicant be sponsored by two union members tends to exclude all who are not sons, relatives, or close friends of union members. Efforts to open the skilled trades to minorities and women have found it necessary to bypass or breach the apprenticeship rules, and this has beer\. difficult. Conflict analysis beautifully fits thl! struggle over apprenticeship rules and union .admission.