Category Archive for: SOCIAL ORDER AND SOCIAL CONTROL

Modern interventionists

Modern interventionists Modern interventionists such as Erving Goffman (1959] and Herbert Blumer [1962] emphasize that people do not respond to other people directly; instead, they respond to whatever they imagine other people to be. In human behavior, “reality” is not something that is just “out there” like the curbs and sidewalks along the street; “reality” is constructed in peoples’ minds as they size…

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FREEDOM AND ORDER

FREEDOM AND ORDER  Defining certain acts as deviant is a way of reinforcing  conventional norms. Nearly a century ago Durkheim [1893] stated what scan scandalous behavior unites the community in support of conventional norms. Erickson [1966 claims  that  deviance clarifies the norms when  certain acts are defined as deviant, this shows people how far they can go No known society has allowed…

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CONFLICT THEORY

CONFLICT THEORY Cultural Conflict  When there are a number of subcultures (ethnic, religious, national regional, class) in a society, this reduces the degree of value consensual. The clashing norms of differing subcultures create a condition of anomie formlessness. The norms of the dominant culture become written into law, making criminals of those sharing a divergent subculture. The culture of the lower class is in…

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SOCIETAL REACTION THEORY

SOCIETAL REACTION THEORY This the oryalso called labeling thtory, begins with the fact that deviation is created by the definition of . an act as deviant. We cannot have rule breakers without rule makers. Societal reaction theory stresses the manufacture of deviation through the labeling process. By labeling an act as deviant, we set in motion a chain of events which tend to…

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ANOMIE THEORY

ANOMIE THEORY The concept of anomie was developed by Durkheim [1897]. The term translates roughly as “normlessness.” It describes a society which has many conflicting . sets of norms and values. No one set is strongly enough held and widely enough accepted to be very binding. The anomie society lacks consistent guidelines for people to learn; the…

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Differential Association

Differential Association Sutherland noted that criminal behavior is found in all regions and classes not just in slums. He proposed a differential association theory that criminal behavior is learned through contact with criminal patterns which are present, are acceptable, and are.rewarded in one’s .physical and social environment. A person “engages in criminal behavior if, and only if, the weight of the favorable definitions exceeds…

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SOCIALIZATION THEORY

SOCIALIZATION THEORY  Socialization theory begins with the functionalist assumption that there is a common core of norms and values shared by most of a society’s members. Of course, the image of a perfectly integrated culture whose norms and values are shared by all members of a society is just a model, a starting point for analysis. Socialization theorists recognize that this model imperfectly…

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PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY

PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY  To whatever extent mental defect and mental illness arc organically caused, the psychological theories overlap with the biological theories. There is no doubt that mental illness and personality maladjustment are associated with some kinds of deviant behavior. This lias to be true since deviant behavior is often used as a symptom in diagnosing mental illness. One is diagnosed as mentally ill…

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Theories of Deviation

Theories of Deviation, No matter how efficient the social control some people become deviant. Why? BIOLOGICAL THEORY. Some people are to conform because of biological defect: Those with severe physical or mental handicap cannot possibly fulfill all the usual, behave or  expectations ..But deviation through biological  inability to conform is not very common and . appears to be a minor factor in…

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DEVIATION IS ADAPTIVE

DEVIATION IS ADAPTIVE Deviation is both a  threat and a protection to social stability. On the one hand; a society earn operate efficiently only if there is order and, predictability in social life. We must Kyoto , within reasonable limits, what behavior to expect from others, what they expect of us, and what kind of society our children should be socialized…

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