Category Archive for: SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGE

Specific Attitudes and Values

Specific Attitudes and Values Aside from its general attitude toward change, each society has many specific attitudes and and values which cling to its objects and activities. When government agents introduced hybrid com to the Spanish-American farmers of the Rio Grande Valley some years ago, the farmers readily adopted it because of its superior yield, but within three years, they had all returned…

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Role of the Change Agent

Role of the Change Agent Who proposes a change, and how does this person go about it? The identity of theorig- ‘  inator greatly affects acceptance or rejection.A Nigerian government effort to introduce new fertilizer failed because of the peasants’ bad past experiences with government officials [Lauer, 1977, p. 10]. Any proposal identified as “communist” is doomed to certain defeat…

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Costs of Change

Costs of Change The very poor generally resist all change, because they cannot afford to take any risk [Arensberg and Niehoff, 1971, pp. 149-150J. hange is nearly always costly. Not only does change disrupt the existing culture and destroy cherished sentiments and values, but it also involves some specific costs. TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES OF CHANGE. Very few innovations can simply be added to…

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Compatibility with Existing Culture

Compatibility with Existing Culture Innovations are most readily accepted when they fit in nicely with the existing culture. The horse fitted easily into the hunting culture of the Apache, as it enabled them to do better what they were already doing. Not all innovations mesh so well. Innovations may be incompatible with. the existing culture in at least three ways. First, the innovation…

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RESISTANCE TO AND ACCEPTANCE OF SOCIAL CHANGE

RESISTANCE TO  AND ACCEPTANCE OF SOCIAL CHANGE Not all proposed innovations are accepted by the society. Some years ago, Spicer suggested that proposed changes meet resistance when  1) the change is imposed by others, (2) the change is not understood, or (3) the change is seen as a threat to people’s values [Spicer, 1952 p. 18]. A process of selective nccepiance operates…

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The Cultural Base

The Cultural Base Prehistoric cave dwellers could make exceedingly few material inventions, for they had  very little to work with. Even the bow andarrow include a number of inventions and techniques-s-notching the bow ends, tying the bowstring, hafting and pointing the arrow, plus the idea and technique of shooting it. Not until these components were invented was it possible to invent…

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Attitudes and Values

Attitudes and Values To us change is normal, and most Westerners pride themselves upon being progressive and up to date. Children in Western societies are socialized to anticipate and appreciate change. By contrast, the Trobriand Islanders off the coast of New Guinea had no concept of change and did not even have any words in their :~ngum C!l nge [Lee, 1959, ‘pp. 89…

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SocialStructure

Social Structure The structure of it society affects its rate of  change in subtle and not immediately apparent ways.inkeles and Smith [1974] conducted in-depth interviews in six developing countries, seeking to find out what made some persons receptive to change. They found that some persons had “a general modernity syndrome” [p. 225] and that such persons were likely to have worked…

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FACTORS IN THE RATE OF CHANGE

Isolation and Contact Societies located at world crossroads have always been centers of change. Since most new traits come through diffusion, those societies in closest contact with other societies are likely-to change most rapidly. In ancient times of overland transport, the land bridge connecting Asia, Africa, and Europe was the center of civilizing change. Later, sailing vessels shifted the center to the…

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Diffusion

Diffusion Even the most inventive society invents only a modest proportion of its Innovations. Most of the social changes in all known societies have developed through diffusion, the spread of culture traits from group to group. Diffusion operates both within societies and between societies. Jazz originated among black musicians of New Orleans and became diffused to other groups within the society. Later it spread…

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