Category Archive for: POPULATION AND URBANIZATION

COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE

COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND SOCIAL CHANGE Along with many other well-known persons, Potency Cromwell and Jim Lowell arc expressing their  concerns about global warming and encouraging others to engage in collective behavior to try to save the planet from serious harm. The term global warming refers to a process that occurs when carbon dioxide (produced by…

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Divided Interests: Cities, Suburbs, and Beyond

Divided Interests: Cities, Suburbs, and Beyond Since World War Il, a dramatic population shift has occurred in this country as thousands of families have moved from cities to suburbs. Even though some people lived in suburban areas prior to the twentieth century. it took the involvement of the federal government and large-scale development to spur the dramatic shift that began in…

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Urban Problems in the United States

Urban Problems in the United States Even the most optimistic of observers tends to agree that cities in the United States have problems brought on by years of neglect and deterioration. As we have seen in previous chapters, poverty. crime. racism. sexism. homelessness, inadequate public school systems, alcoholism and other drug abuse, gangs and guns. and other social problems are most visible…

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Problems in Global Cities

Problems in Global Cities As we have seen. although people have lived in cities for thousands of years, the time is rapidly approaching when more people worldwide will live in or near a city than live in a rural area. In the middle-income and low-income regions of the world. Latin America is becoming the most urbanized: Four mcgacitics-Mexico City. Buenos Aires.…

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Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives: The Experience of City Life

Symbolic Interventionist Perspectives: The Experience of City Life Symbolic interactionists examine the experience of urban life. How docs city life affect the people who live in a city? analysts answer this question positively others arc cynical about the effects of urban living on the individual. Simmel’s View of City Life According to the German sociologist Georg Simmel (195011902-1917), urban life is highly stimulating, and…

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Conflict Perspectives: Political Economy Models

Conflict Perspectives: Political Economy Models Conflict theorists argue that cities do not grow or decline by chance. Rather. they are the product of specific decisions made by members of the capitalist class and political elites. These far-reaching decisions regarding land use and urban development benefit the members of some groups at the expense of others (see  Castells, 1977/1972). Karl Marx suggested…

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Functionalist Perspectives: Ecological Models

Functionalist Perspectives: Ecological Models The Concentric Zone Model Burgess’s concentric z,,,,e model is a description of the process of urban growth that views the city as a series of circular areas or zones, each characterized by a different type of land use. that developed from a central core (see. Figure 1 is the central business district and cultural center. In Zone…

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Perspectives on Urbanization and the Growth of Cities

Perspectives  on Urbanization and the Growth of Cities Urban sociology follows in the tradition of early European sociological perspectives that compared social  111<- with biological organisms or ecological processes.For example, August Comte pointed nut that Celtics arc the “real organs” that make a society function.  Emile Durkheim applied natural ecology to his analysis of mocha solidarity. characterized by a…

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Postindustrial Cities

Postindustrial Cities Since the 1950. postindustrial cities have emerged in nations Such as the United States as their economic’s have gradually shifted from secondary (manufactureing) production to tertiary (service and information processing) production. Postindustrial cities increasingly rely on an economic structure that is based on scientific knowledge rather than industrial production. and as a result, a class of professionals and technicians grows…

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Industrial Cities

Industrial Cities The Industrial Revolution changed the nature ugh the city. Factories sprang up rapidly as production shifted from the primary, agricultural sector to the secondary, manufacturing sector. With the advent of factories crane many new employment opportunities not available to people in rural areas. Emergent technology. in duding forms of transportation and agricultural production. made it easier for people…

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