Category Archive for: AGING AND INEQUALITY BASED IN AGE

Sociological Perspectives on Aging

Sociological Perspectives on Aging Sociologists and social gerontologists have developed  a number of explanations regarding the social effects of aging. Some of the early theories were based on a  microelectronics of how individuals adapt to changing social roles. More-recent theories have used a leveler approach to examine the inequalities produced by age stratification at the societal level. Functionalist Perspectives…

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Living Arrangements for Older Adults

Living Arrangements for Older Adults Many frail. older people live alone or in a family setting where care is provided informally by family or friends. Relatives (especially women) provide most of the care. Many women caregivers are employed outside the home; some are still raising a family. Recently. the responsibilities of informal caregivers have become more complex. For some frail. older…

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Age and Race/Ethnicity

Age and Race/Ethnicity Age. race/ethnicity, and economic inequality are closely intertwined. Inequalities that exist later in life originate in individuals’ early participation in the labor force and arc amplified in late adulthood. For example. . older African Americans continue to feel the impact of segregated schools  And overt patterns of job discrimination that wer~ present during their early years. Although African Americans…

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Inequalities Related ,to Aging

Inequalities Related to Aging In previous chapters. we have seen how prejudice and  discrimination may be directed toward individuals based on ascribed characteristics-such asrace/ethnicity or gender-over which they have no control. The same holds true for age. Ageism Stereotypes regarding older persons reinforce ageism. defined in Chapter 4 as prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age, particularly…

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Late Adulthood

Late Adulthood Late adulthood is generally considered to begin at age  6S-which formerly was referred to as the “normal”retirement age. However. with changes in Social Securityregulations that provide for full retirement benefits to be paid only after a person reaches 66 or 67 years of age (based upon the individuals year of birth). many older persons have chosen to…

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Middle Adulthood

Middle Adulthood Prior to the twentieth century, life expectancy in the United States was only about 47 years, so the concept  of middle adulthood-people between the ages of 40and 65-did not exist until fairly recently. Normal changes in appearance occur during these years, and although these changes have little relationship to a  person’s health or physical functioning, they…

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Adolescence

Adolescence In contemporary industrialized countries, adolescence roughly spans the teenage years, although some analysts place the lower and upper ages at 15 and 24. Before the twentieth century, adolescence did not exist as an age category. Today, it is a period in which young people are expected to continue their education and perhaps hold a part-time job. What inequalities based on…

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Age and the Life Course in Contemporary Society

Age and the Life Course in Contemporary Society During the twentieth century, life expectancy steadily increased as industrialized nations developed better water and sewage systems, improved nutrition, and made tremendous advances in medical science. However  children today are often viewed as an economic liability; they cannot contribute to the family’s financial well-being and must be supported. In industrialized and postindustrial societies, the…

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Infancy and Childhood

Infancy and Childhood Infancy (bir’~l to age 2) and childhood (ages 3 to 12) are typically thought of as carefree years; however, children are among the most powerless and vulnerable people in society. Historically, children were seen as the property of their parents, who could do with them as they pleased (Tower, 1996). In fact, whether an infant survives the first…

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A Case Study: Aging, Gender, and Japanese Society

A Case Study: Aging, Gender, and Japanese Society A Significant increase in the older population in Japan has occurred over the past 30 years. whereas it took almost a century in North America and Europe. If the present trend continues in Japan. by 2025 people age 65 and over will make up about 25 percent of the total population. and more…

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